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钱说废就废的疯狂:委内瑞拉两周内100美元贬值到50美元

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年12月17日 17:20:21
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新宝5 叩33673直招信誉平台官方,招龙虎和代理注册实力诚招代理Q扣99277339时时彩龙虎和,意彩彩票代理,意彩官网,意彩平台注册,意彩乐官网,意彩娱乐官方网站钱说废就废的疯狂:委内瑞拉两周内100美元贬值到50美元

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(原)(标)(题)(:钱)(说)(废)(就)(废)(的)(疯)(狂)(:委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(两)(周)(内)(100美)(元)(贬)(值)(到)(50美)(元)(
港)(股)(解)(码)(,香)(港)(财)(华)(社)(原)(创)(深)(度)(财)(经)(号)(,20年)(专)(注)(港)(股)(,金)(融)(名)(家)(齐)(聚)(,洞)(悉)(市)(场)(动)(态)(。看)(完)(记)(得)(订)(阅)(、评)(论)(、点)(赞)(哦)(。
■文)(|陈)(铭)(京)(,香)(港)(财)(华)(社)(财)(经)(编)(辑)(。
我)(们)(是)(否)(还)(记)(得)(2009年)(在)(津)(巴)(布)(韦)(国)(家)(发)(生)(的)(那)(场)(恶)(性)(通)(胀)(,那)(场)(通)(胀)(堪)(称)(人)(类)(史)(上)(最)(恶)(劣)(的)(通)(胀)(案)(例)(,至)(今)(都)(没)(有)(哪)(个)(国)(家)(可)(以)(超)(越)(。最)(初)(的)(源)(头)(于)(2006年)(,当)(时)(津)(巴)(布)(韦)(通)(胀)(已)(经)(很)(严)(重)(,政)(府)(为)(了)(稳)(定)(国)(家)(的)(宏)(观)(经)(济)(,压)(抑)(通)(胀)(,选)(择)(了)(发)(行)(新)(的)(更)(大)(面)(值)(的)(纸)(币)(。在)(新)(纸)(币)(的)(带)(动)(下)(,通)(胀)(并)(没)(有)(消)(除)(,而)(是)(越)(来)(越)(猛)(,新)(纸)(币)(面)(值)(已)(经)(不)(能)(满)(足)(通)(胀)(要)(求)(。
2008年)(5月)(时)(,津)(巴)(布)(韦)(发)(行)(更)(大)(面)(额)(的)(纸)(币)(,包)(括)(1亿)(面)(值)(、2.5亿)(面)(值)(、5亿)(面)(值)(、25亿)(面)(值)(、50亿)(面)(值)(新)(津)(元)(。市)(面)(上)(纸)(面)(成)(堆)(,已)(经)(没)(有)(任)(何)(的)(价)(值)(。据)(说)(在)(2008年)(到)(6月)(时)(,1美)(元)(兑)(1000亿)(新)(币)(,而)(1000亿)(新)(币)(只)(是)(等)(值)(于)(一)(个)(面)(包)(。
印)(度)(、委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(重)(演)(历)(史)(
最)(后)(津)(巴)(布)(韦)(政)(府)(放)(弃)(了)(本)(国)(货)(币)(,而)(允)(许)(其)(他)(国)(家)(货)(币)(例)(如)(美)(元)(、英)(镑)(和)(欧)(元)(等)(货)(币)(在)(国)(内)(流)(通)(。津)(巴)(布)(韦)(元)(成)(为)(历)(史)(。无)(独)(有)(偶)(,如)(今)(又)(有)(些)(国)(家)(开)(始)(实)(行)(大)(面)(额)(的)(货)(币)(的)(方)(式)(抑)(制)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(。比)(如)(在)(11月)(8日)(,印)(度)(总)(理)(莫)(迪)(宣)(布)(,500卢)(比)(和)(1000卢)(比)(面)(值)(的)(钞)(票)(从)(午)(夜)(起)(退)(出)(流)(通)(,这)(两)(类)(纸)(币)(不)(再)(是)(合)(法)(货)(币)(,取)(而)(代)(之)(的)(是)(新)(版)(500和)(2000的)(卢)(比)(。印)(度)(方)(面)(的)(理)(由)(是)(这)(是)(政)(府)(打)(击)(猖)(獗)(的)(腐)(败)(和)(伪)(造)(货)(币)(行)(为)(的)(一)(部)(分)(。
12月)(11日)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(总)(统)(马)(杜)(罗)(宣)(布)(了)(废)(钞)(令)(,要)(求)(该)(国)(目)(前)(最)(大)(面)(值)(的)(纸)(币)(100玻)(利)(瓦)(尔)(在)(72小)(时)(内)(彻)(底)(退)(出)(流)(通)(。之)(后)(废)(除)(遭)(受)(到)(阻)(挠)(,延)(迟)(至)(1月)(2号)(,新)(版)(玻)(利)(瓦)(尔)(将)(会)(亮)(相)(,分)(别)(为)(500、1000、2000、5000、10000和)(20000玻)(利)(瓦)(尔)(。同)(样)(,委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(方)(面)(的)(理)(由)(和)(印)(度)(如)(出)(一)(辙)(,打)(击)(伪)(造)(货)(币)(,维)(护)(市)(场)(稳)(定)(。
而)(且)(目)(前)(很)(多)(国)(家)(在)(发)(行)(大)(额)(面)(钞)(上)(均)(有)(所)(迹)(象)(,中)(国)(也)(不)(例)(外)(,之)(前)(就)(有)(传)(言)(中)(国)(将)(要)(发)(行)(1000元)(大)(额)(纸)(币)(,不)(过)(之)(后)(由)(于)(负)(面)(信)(息)(充)(斥)(,政)(策)(并)(没)(有)(在)(市)(场)(上)(兑)(现)(。以)(目)(前)(的)(现)(状)(来)(看)(,美)(国)(的)(加)(息)(行)(为)(让)(各)(国)(的)(货)(币)(具)(有)(了)(持)(续)(贬)(值)(的)(预)(期)(,通)(胀)(的)(预)(期)(将)(会)(更)(加)(列)(,发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(货)(币)(也)(是)(情)(理)(之)(中)(的)(事)(了)(。不)(过)(发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(一)(般)(都)(发)(生)(在)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(。
100美)(元)(在)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(两)(周)(后)(只)(值)(50美)(元)(
新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(大)(部)(分)(发)(生)(着)(不)(同)(程)(度)(的)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(,比)(如)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(,委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(被)(世)(界)(公)(认)(的)(通)(货)(膨)(胀)(较)(为)(严)(重)(的)(国)(家)(。
据)(新)(闻)(报)(道)(,委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(在)(两)(个)(星)(期)(,20万)(玻)(利)(瓦)(黑)(市)(兑)(换)(率)(由)(刚)(开)(始)(的)(100美)(元)(,跌)(至)(两)(周)(后)(的)(50美)(元)(,单)(以)(此)(换)(算)(等)(于)(两)(周)(通)(胀)(1倍)(。
贬)(值)(得)(如)(此)(之)(快)(,可)(见)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(通)(胀)(极)(猛)(。政)(府)(去)(年)(公)(布)(全)(年)(通)(胀)(为)(180%,但)(今)(年)(已)(经)(不)(公)(布)(数)(字)(,国)(际)(货)(币)(基)(金)(组)(织)((IMF)则)(估)(计)(今)(年)(通)(胀)(为)(500%,GDP下)(跌)(了)(10%。
委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(是)(靠)(石)(油)(拉)(动)(发)(展)(的)(国)(家)(,工)(业)(和)(农)(业)(较)(落)(后)(,生)(活)(水)(平)(并)(不)(高)(,物)(资)(也)(并)(不)(丰)(富)(,但)(货)(币)(的)(超)(发)(导)(致)(了)(高)(通)(胀)(率)(,从)(而)(导)(致)(进)(一)(步)(导)(致)(货)(币)(贬)(值)(。而)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(实)(行)(外)(汇)(管)(制)(,官)(方)(汇)(率)(和)(黑)(市)(市)(场)(汇)(率)(差)(距)(很)(大)(。官)(方)(汇)(率)(1USD=9.975VEF,但)(在)(黑)(市)(需)(要)(上)(千)(的)(玻)(利)(瓦)(尔)(才)(能)(兑)(换)(1美)(元)(。
而)(印)(度)(尼)(西)(亚)(,按)(照)(全)(球)(宏)(观)(经)(济)(数)(据)(里)(查)(阅)(的)(资)(料)(,2010-2015年)(间)(CPI年)(平)(均)(通)(胀)(增)(长)(率)(达)(6%,如)(果)(以)(此)(为)(计)(算)(,到)(现)(在)(2016年)(,相)(对)(于)(2010年)(物)(价)(至)(少)(上)(涨)(了)(41.85%。实)(际)(上)(,同)(样)(是)(货)(币)(超)(发)(的)(结)(果)(,如)(果)(市)(场)(流)(通)(中)(的)(货)(币)(少)(于)(实)(际)(的)(商)(品)(量)(,商)(品)(价)(格)(不)(可)(能)(需)(要)(这)(么)(高)(的)(面)(值)(货)(币)(。目)(前)(官)(方)(汇)(率)(是)(1美)(元)(=13385印)(尼)(卢)(比)(。
而)(印)(度)(方)(面)(,同)(样)(表)(现)(为)(通)(胀)(较)(为)(严)(重)(,2010-2015年)(间)(平)(均)(通)(胀)(年)(增)(率)(比)(印)(尼)(还)(要)(高)(,达)(8.88%,由)(此)(计)(算)(2016年)(较)(2010年)(CPI通)(胀)(增)(幅)(65.87%。不)(过)(印)(度)(方)(面)(在)(通)(胀)(上)(治)(理)(表)(现)(还)(算)(可)(以)(,增)(长)(速)(率)(已)(经)(变)(慢)(下)(来)(,据)(印)(度)(方)(面)(数)(据)(印)(度)(9月)(份)(CPI同)(比)(增)(长)(4.31%。但)(是)(历)(史)(遗)(留)(下)(来)(的)(通)(胀)(仍)(然)(存)(在)(。
其)(实)(中)(国)(也)(曾)(试)(着)(发)(行)(1000面)(值)(的)(纸)(币)(,满)(足)(市)(场)(流)(通)(需)(要)(,不)(过)(各)(种)(负)(面)(新)(闻)(后)(,就)(没)(有)(下)(文)(了)(。相)(对)(来)(说)(,中)(国)(的)(官)(方)(数)(据)(显)(示)(的)(CPI增)(速)(并)(不)(高)(,近)(五)(年)(的)(平)(均)(增)(速)(才)(2.82%。基)(于)(国)(情)(,城)(乡)(经)(济)(差)(距)(较)(大)(,部)(分)(产)(品)(价)(格)(在)(地)(域)(之)(间)(的)(差)(距)(也)(很)(大)(。
中)(国)(央)(行)(确)(实)(超)(发)(了)(很)(多)(货)(币)(,光)(M2的)(年)(增)(速)(就)(达)(百)(分)(之)(十)(几)(的)(增)(长)(,但)(是)(货)(币)(流)(向)(严)(重)(分)(化)(,大)(部)(分)(资)(金)(流)(向)(热)(点)(资)(产)(,比)(如)(股)(市)(和)(楼)(市)(。因)(此)(大)(部)(分)(商)(品)(仍)(然)(没)(有)(受)(到)(超)(发)(货)(币)(“福)(利)(”,就)(目)(前)(来)(说)(虽)(然)(中)(国)(很)(难)(见)(到)(五)(毛)(以)(下)(的)(商)(品)(,但)(市)(场)(仍)(然)(充)(斥)(着)(大)(量)(一)(毛)(五)(毛)(的)(流)(通)(,比)(如)(欠)(发)(达)(地)(区)(中)(小)(型)(超)(市)(。如)(果)(此)(时)(推)(出)(1000元)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(,未)(必)(会)(有)(市)(场)(。
发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(真)(的)(有)(助)(于)(抑)(制)(通)(胀)(吗)(?
每)(个)(人)(都)(知)(道)(,通)(胀)(的)(罪)(魁)(祸)(首)(是)(货)(币)(的)(超)(发)(,因)(为)(流)(通)(中)(的)(货)(币)(量)(远)(远)(超)(过)(了)(商)(品)(所)(需)(要)(的)(货)(币)(量)(,因)(此)(,大)(部)(分)(商)(品)(价)(格)(就)(会)(上)(涨)(。由)(于)(市)(场)(中)(的)(货)(币)(并)(不)(是)(均)(匀)(分)(布)(的)(,部)(分)(资)(产)(或)(者)(受)(到)(冷)(落)(,部)(分)(资)(产)(成)(为)(热)(门)(,货)(币)(政)(策)(的)(引)(导)(性)(,可)(以)(调)(节)(这)(两)(种)(资)(产)(的)(冷)(热)(程)(度)(,使)(得)(价)(格)(分)(布)(更)(加)(的)(合)(理)(。但)(货)(币)(政)(策)(的)(盲)(目)(性)(,一)(味)(超)(发)(货)(币)(,臆)(想)(弥)(补)(冷)(门)(资)(产)(的)(流)(动)(性)(,实)(际)(上)(助)(推)(了)(热)(门)(资)(产)(更)(热)(门)(,从)(而)(带)(动)(国)(内)(全)(部)(资)(产)(的)(普)(遍)(性)(上)(涨)(。
但)(是)(超)(发)(货)(币)(已)(经)(成)(为)(事)(实)(,通)(胀)(已)(经)(形)(成)(,在)(没)(有)(形)(成)(类)(似)(于)(津)(巴)(布)(韦)(的)(恶)(性)(通)(胀)(之)(前)(,是)(否)(可)(以)(通)(过)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(来)(避)(免)(呢)(?实)(际)(上)(,为)(了)(适)(应)(市)(场)(流)(通)(的)(需)(要)(,发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(是)(比)(较)(合)(理)(的)(。
首)(先)(,大)(部)(分)(商)(品)(的)(价)(格)(已)(经)(远)(离)(之)(前)(的)(小)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(,如)(果)(利)(用)(原)(先)(的)(纸)(币)(兑)(付)(,已)(经)(不)(能)(满)(足)(流)(动)(的)(需)(要)(。而)(大)(部)(分)(产)(品)(已)(经)(实)(现)(大)(额)(纸)(币)(所)(能)(支)(付)(的)(范)(围)(,为)(了)(适)(应)(流)(动)(性)(,这)(样)(的)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(是)(符)(合)(时)(代)(要)(求)(的)(。
其)(次)(,大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(一)(旦)(稳)(定)(流)(动)(,小)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(被)(废)(弃)(之)(后)(,商)(品)(价)(格)(将)(重)(新)(形)(成)(一)(个)(新)(的)(价)(格)(点)(,以)(这)(个)(价)(格)(点)(为)(中)(心)(的)(便)(是)(大)(额)(纸)(币)(。如)(果)(货)(币)(政)(策)(稳)(健)(,没)(有)(超)(发)(的)(现)(象)(,价)(格)(的)(维)(稳)(是)(科)(学)(的)(。而)(且)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(进)(入)(流)(通)(后)(,促)(进)(了)(产)(品)(的)(交)(易)(,大)(大)(有)(助)(于)(经)(济)(增)(长)(。最)(典)(型)(的)(例)(子)(如)(日)(本)(,日)(本)(的)(日)(元)(面)(值)(很)(大)(,但)(发)(展)(到)(现)(在)(并)(没)(有)(发)(生)(过)(恶)(性)(通)(胀)(,人)(家)(货)(币)(控)(制)(的)(好)(。
最)(后)(,价)(格)(只)(是)(一)(组)(数)(字)(,并)(没)(有)(什)(么)(意)(义)(。自)(人)(类)(发)(明)(了)(商)(品)(交)(易)(媒)(介)(:货)(币)(开)(始)(,人)(们)(就)(以)(货)(币)(来)(衡)(量)(市)(场)(上)(产)(品)(的)(价)(值)(,当)(纸)(币)(出)(现)(后)(,因)(为)(纸)(币)(的)(印)(制)(成)(本)(几)(乎)(为)(零)(,因)(此)(没)(有)(价)(值)(的)(纸)(币)(只)(能)(是)(商)(品)(价)(格)(的)(记)(账)(符)(号)(而)(已)(。没)(有)(价)(值)(的)(纸)(币)(之)(所)(以)(可)(以)(肆)(无)(忌)(惮)(的)(流)(通)(,是)(因)(为)(沾)(着)(国)(家)(法)(定)(货)(币)(的)(角)(色)(,因)(此)(每)(一)(国)(家)(的)(法)(定)(货)(币)(均)(是)(这)(个)(国)(家)(经)(济)(的)(象)(征)(。发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(纸)(币)(,纸)(币)(仍)(然)(是)(法)(定)(货)(币)(,只)(不)(过)(数)(字)(变)(了)(而)(已)(,实)(际)(上)(商)(品)(价)(值)(并)(没)(有)(变)(化)(。
因)(此)(,我)(们)(发)(现)(,只)(有)(国)(家)(不)(超)(发)(货)(币)(,控)(制)(货)(币)(稳)(健)(的)(增)(长)(,一)(切)(都)(会)(良)(性)(发)(展)(,恶)(性)(通)(胀)(将)(不)(会)(到)(来)(。津)(巴)(布)(韦)(的)(历)(史)(,当)(年)(津)(巴)(布)(韦)(是)(可)(以)(控)(制)(住)(脱)(缰)(的)(物)(价)(的)(,只)(不)(过)(,发)(行)(新)(币)(后)(,还)(要)(大)(量)(的)(印)(钞)(,以)(新)(币)(为)(起)(点)(的)(商)(品)(价)(格)(得)(到)(政)(策)(的)(响)(应)(,物)(价)(不)(飞)(涨)(才)(怪)(呢)(。
汇)(率)(变)(化)(助)(推)(通)(胀)(预)(期)(
近)(期)(,川)(普)(获)(得)(大)(选)(后)(,美)(国)(货)(币)(政)(策)(加)(息)(,财)(政)(政)(策)(减)(税)(,在)(双)(重)(政)(策)(诱)(惑)(下)(,大)(量)(的)(国)(际)(资)(本)(将)(涌)(入)(美)(国)(。在)(市)(场)(信)(号)(下)(,大)(部)(分)(国)(家)(货)(币)(兑)(美)(元)(应)(声)(下)(跌)(,处)(于)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(的)(国)(家)(,比)(如)(印)(度)(、新)(西)(洋)(、中)(国)(等)(,汇)(率)(将)(受)(到)(新)(一)(轮)(的)(波)(及)(,贬)(值)(是)(已)(经)(成)(为)(趋)(势)(。
对)(于)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(来)(说)(,在)(经)(济)(对)(外)(开)(放)(程)(度)(上)(,或)(多)(或)(少)(会)(有)(些)(限)(制)(,为)(了)(防)(范)(资)(本)(过)(度)(流)(动)(和)(财)(富)(损)(失)(,这)(无)(疑)(是)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(对)(国)(内)(经)(济)(最)(有)(效)(的)(外)(汇)(资)(本)(管)(制)(措)(施)(。一)(国)(的)(汇)(率)(贬)(值)(,意)(味)(着)(国)(内)(产)(品)(更)(加)(的)(便)(宜)(,是)(有)(利)(于)(出)(口)(的)(,在)(这)(方)(面)(来)(讲)(,是)(有)(利)(于)(一)(国)(经)(济)(的)(发)(展)(。
实)(际)(上)(,如)(果)(新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(预)(期)(贬)(值)(的)(持)(续)(性)(时)(,通)(胀)(就)(会)(伴)(随)(而)(生)(,虽)(然)(前)(期)(通)(过)(出)(口)(获)(得)(了)(一)(定)(的)(创)(汇)(,但)(是)(持)(续)(的)(贬)(值)(会)(以)(创)(汇)(的)(回)(流)(和)(外)(汇)(占)(款)(的)(形)(式)(将)(货)(币)(量)(成)(倍)(放)(大)(,终)(将)(影)(响)(到)(国)(内)(的)(物)(价)(,同)(时)(,外)(国)(进)(口)(的)(产)(品)(价)(格)(也)(同)(样)(具)(有)(带)(动)(作)(用)(。当)(整)(个)(市)(场)(价)(格)(上)(涨)(了)(,通)(胀)(就)(形)(成)(了)(。
事)(实)(上)(,新)(兴)(市)(场)(国)(家)(对)(货)(币)(的)(持)(续)(贬)(值)(估)(计)(预)(期)(一)(致)(性)(,通)(胀)(不)(可)(避)(免)(,发)(行)(大)(面)(额)(货)(币)(迎)(接)(通)(胀)(也)(是)(部)(分)(国)(家)(目)(前)(所)(能)(采)(取)(的)(办)(法)(。实)(际)(上)(稳)(住)(货)(币)(政)(策)(,防)(止)(滥)(发)(货)(币)(才)(是)(防)(止)(通)(胀)(恶)(化)(的)(最)(根)(本)(方)(法)(。
■编)(辑)(|李)(思)(,香)(港)(财)(华)(社)(财)(经)(编)(辑)(。
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